Carbon Storage.jpeg

WE HAVE YOUR ANSWERS

 

CARBON REMOVAL

What is Air to Earth Permanent Carbon Removal?


Our approach is multi-faceted; we create climate assets and issue, register and retire Air to Earth Carbon Removal Offsets ("A2E CROs") backed by these assets. We provide our expertise and services to the general public through our website, and to corporations, institutions and government agencies directly. For each A2E CRO retired, we provide funding to innovate Direct Air Capture and advocate for carbon removal under the Air to Earth Standard... only measurable carbon offsets that actually benefit the planet should ever be used to achieve net-zero goals. We refer to this entire process as Air to Earth Permanent Carbon Removal.




What is the difference between A2E CROs and traditional carbon offsets?


Offsetting by the voluntary carbon markets has been almost exclusively supplied by verified carbon credits issued by international projects (i.e., traditional carbon offsets, the majority of which have involved forestry projects). A2E CROs represent emission reduction projects here in the U.S. The initial carbon removal project we offer involves permanently removing carbon pollution rights that would otherwise be consumed by the US power sector. When we remove these rights, we create a climate asset out of a climate liability. A2E CROs are measurable carbon offsets that actually benefit the planet. We do not transact in carbon credits issued by international projects.





Are traditional offsets good?


Yes, of course - under the right circumstances. Unfortunately, there are many examples of carbon offsets that were not created under the right circumstances, with increasing negative publicity surrounding their use in the voluntary carbon markets.(1,2) The fact that questionable offsets have been endorsed by companies that verified their validity has not helped. Detractors question the validity and quality of some carbon offset products, and whether or not they remove carbon in a permanent, additional, verifiable, enforceable and real manner. In ProPublica’s 2019 investigation, it was found that loggers in Brazil cut down trees once the offsets had been sold to U.S. and European corporations.(3) To date, offsetting by the voluntary carbon markets has been almost exclusively supplied by verified carbon credits issued by international projects. A fundamental concern of a project-based carbon credit is that the quantity of emissions reduction and/or carbon removal is unprovable – the reduction or removal is relative to an unobservable baseline.

(1) https://www.bloomberg.com/features/2020-nature-conservancy-carbon-offsets-trees/

(2) https://qz.com/2009746/not-all-carbon-offsets-are-a-scam-but-many-still-are/

(3) https://features.propublica.org/brazil-carbon-offsets/inconvenient-truth-carbon-credits-dont-work-deforestation-redd-acre-cambodia/





What will change when I purchase A2E CROs?


Regulated U.S. power plants have a license to emit carbon. In certain jurisdictions, they must pay for this right at auction. This cost to aquire pollution rights impacts the marginal cost of electricity generation and makes inefficient fossil generation less competive. Forcing power plants to acquire pollution rights at market prices changes the "economic dispatch" order. When we remove pollution rights that would otherwise be consumed by the U.S. power sector, we create additional scarcity in these markets which increases the marginal cost of inefficient fossil generation in the wholesale power market. By channeling voluntary demand and removing these pollution rights, we compel power generators to reduce emissions beyond stated goals or pay up to pollute, accelerating the U.S. power sector’s transition to clean energy. In addition, proceeds from the sale of these rights are plowed back into the local economy by state governments. They are used to fund energy efficiency, renewable energy, greenhouse gas abatement and other consumer benefit programs. Channeling voluntary demand into these auctions increases the proceeds available for reinvestment.





How are A2E CROs better?


A2E CROs or Air to Earth Carbon Removal Offsets can be accurately measured and verified - we issue, register and retire them for the voluntary carbon markets. There is no unobservable baseline that enters into the equation. We do not transact in carbon credits issued by international projects.

  • We deliver systemic change in the U.S.
  • We leverage successful U.S. regulatory frameworks that are proven and demonstrated to reduce emissions.
  • We remove carbon pollution rights that would otherwise be consumed by the U.S. power sector, reducing emissions beyond stated goals.
  • We register your voluntary investment in A2E’s CRO Registry and properly credit you for decarbonizing the U.S. power sector.
For each A2E CRO retired, we provide funding to innovate Direct Air Capture technology and advocate for carbon removal under The Air to Earth Standard. We do all of this for the voluntary carbon markets at a price comparable to that of a traditional carbon offset.




What are A2E CROs?


A2E CROs are an abbreviation for Air to Earth Carbon Removal Offsets. Each A2E CRO represents 1 metric ton of CO2 removal. A2E CROs are issued under the Air to Earth Standard.




What is the Air to Earth Standard?


The Air to Earth Standard test can be applied to any voluntary greenhouse gas emissions reduction or offset product that is available in the marketplace and available for use by any discerning individual, corporation, institution or governmental agency as a means for achieving net-zero greenhouse gas emissions. The Air to Earth Standard involves customary principals and requirements related to transparency, environmental integrity of emission reductions, including satisfaction of all “permanent, additional, verifiable, enforceable and real” tests, validity and verification of emissions reductions and tracking system disclosure to avoid double sales and double issuance. In addition, the Air to Earth Standard employs the following principal... only measurable carbon offsets that actually benefit the planet should ever be used to achieve net-zero goals. All A2E CROs are issued under the Air to Earth Standard.





 
 

RIGHTS AQUISITIONS

What is RGGI?


The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative is a tremendous success story; it is a cooperative effort of 11 New England and Mid-Atlantic States here in the U.S. to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.




What is the current regulatory objective of RGGI?


To reduce current CO2 emissions from the power sector by 30% by 2030 (i.e., a 37.3m ton reduction from 2020 emission levels).




How does RGGI achieve this?


The States within RGGI cap emissions and auction the right to emit CO2 (aka “allowances”) to regulated third parties and others.




What is the 2021 emissions cap for the power sector in the 11 RGGI States?


120m short tons of CO2




Can the voluntary carbon markets participate in these auctions?


YES, auctions are open to regulated power plants and the voluntary carbon markets.




What is the significance of a declining cap?


A declining cap forces a regulated party to either cut emissions or pay up to acquire the right to pollute.




Does this mean that for RGGI to achieve its regulatory objective, it has committed to tighten the allowable emissions cap by 3.7m short tons each and every year through 2030?


YES, the remaining fossil generation in RGGI is natural gas fired generation. Gas to renewables switching will be necessary to achieve this objective.




How does the regulated power sector comply?


By reporting carbon emissions to the EPA and acquiring and surrendering RGGI allowances equal to its emissions.




What are the consequences of non-compliance by the regulated power sector?


Significant financial penalties and/or potential revocation of operating licenses.




But I thought this is a voluntary product, why should I care about these regulations?


We leverage RGGI’s regulatory framework and provide the voluntary carbon markets access to, in effect, tighten the cap.




When RGGI first started, wasn’t the cap set too high, resulting in a significant surplus of allowances in circulation in 2013?


YES, the cap was set in the 2006 / 2007 time frame when a signficant quantity of coal fired generation was on the grid. The actual transition of coal to natural-gas swtiching occured much quicker than expected, largely due to a collapse in natural gas prices that resulted from the shale gas revolution.




Did RGGI in effect adjust the cap two times since then and reduce the amount of allowances it subsequently auctioned to reduce the size of the surplus?


YES, in the aggregate, RGGI withheld 128 million tons of allowances from auctions that took place in 2013 through 2019.




Did RGGI succeed is reducing the size of the surplus and cause the market clearing price for allowances to increase?


YES, market clearing prices have increase approximately 400% since before these adjustments were implemented.




Does this mean the adjusted RGGI cap is now “tight” (i.e., less than the power sector’s emission)?


YES, as evidenced by a declining balance of surplus allowances for all non-COVID years since 2013.




Does this mean there is scarcity in the RGGI markets?


YES, the amount of allowances that are auctioned each year is less than the total emissions from regulated power plants each year. Demand from regulated power plants is driving a reduction in the balance of surplus allowances.




Is there still a surplus of allowances at the end of 2020?


YES, the surplus at the end of 2020 was 95.45 million tons.




Has RGGI committed to in effect adjust the cap a third time and withhold from future auctions a quantity of allowances equal to the current surplus, as way to reduce the current surplus?


YES, RGGI will withhold a total of 95.45 million allowances from future auctions over the next 5 years.




Does the combination of scarcity and declining oversupply present a measurable and low-cost carbon removal offsetting opportunity today?


YES, and one that satisfies The Air to Earth Standard.




Are you saying that I can leverage RGGI’s existing regulatory framework and legitimately be part of a verifiable solution to bring about a significant reduction in power sector carbon emissions in 11 New England and Mid-Atlantic States?


YES, subject to voluntary participation levels and RGGI auction limitation levels.




By purchasing A2E CROs, am I in effect tightening the cap further, reducing RGGI power sector emissions and removing carbon from the atmosphere?


YES, A2E CROs backed by the removal of pollution rights that would otherwise be consumed by the U.S. power sector provide an immediate and measurable opportunity to create permanent climate assets for the voluntary carbon markets.





 
Direct Air Capture 2.jpeg

We remove carbon by forcing U.S. power plants to reduce emissions when we remove pollution rights that they would otherwise use

ADVOCACY

What is blue carbon capture?





How is carbon removed through regenerative farming?





How much carbon do I produce?


The average American produces approximately 15 tons of CO2 per year.





 

DIRECT AIR CAPTURE

What is Direct Air Capture?


Direct air capture is a process by which CO2 is directly removed from the atmosphere. There are currently a few different technologies that are being commercialized to do this, either by moving air across “filters” that contain chemicals that adhere CO2 molecules to a liquid or solid sorbent. After the “filters” are full, the CO2 is removed and either stored or used for other purposes.




Do we need Direct Air Capture?


Unfortunately, it is estimated that by mid-century reduced emissions alone will no longer be enough to reach established climate targets. The innovation necessary to remove both current and historic carbon emissions through direct air capture exists today and needs to be developed further so that it can be used on a global commercial scale.




Aren’t natural methods of carbon capture just as good as Direct Air Capture?


We believe that we should utilize every possible resource available to effect change and that natural carbon removal pathways are invaluable. That is why we support excellent organizations such as Kiss the Ground and Restore America’s Estuaries. The downside is that the land surface area and the amount of water required are substantial. We believe that working in concert with multiple emerging carbon removal pathways is the best way to achieve our global climate goals.





 

ADVOCACY

What is blue carbon capture?





How is carbon removed through regenerative farming?





How much carbon do I produce?


The average American produces approximately 15 tons of CO2 per year.





 
Sky

We advocate for all serious carbon

removal efforts that benefit the planet

CARBON REMOVAL

What is Air to Earth Permanent Carbon Removal?


Our approach is multi-faceted; we create climate assets and issue, register and retire Air to Earth Carbon Removal Offsets ("A2E CROs") backed by these assets. We provide our expertise and services to the general public through our website, and to corporations, institutions and government agencies directly. For each A2E CRO retired, we provide funding to innovate Direct Air Capture and advocate for carbon removal under the Air to Earth Standard... only measurable carbon offsets that actually benefit the planet should ever be used to achieve net-zero goals. We refer to this entire process as Air to Earth Permanent Carbon Removal.




What is the difference between A2E CROs and traditional carbon offsets?


Offsetting by the voluntary carbon markets has been almost exclusively supplied by verified carbon credits issued by international projects (i.e., traditional carbon offsets, the majority of which have involved forestry projects). A2E CROs represent emission reduction projects here in the U.S. The initial carbon removal project we offer involves permanently removing carbon pollution rights that would otherwise be consumed by the US power sector. When we remove these rights, we create a climate asset out of a climate liability. A2E CROs are measurable carbon offsets that actually benefit the planet. We do not transact in carbon credits issued by international projects.





Are traditional offsets good?


Yes, of course - under the right circumstances. Unfortunately, there are many examples of carbon offsets that were not created under the right circumstances, with increasing negative publicity surrounding their use in the voluntary carbon markets.(1,2) The fact that questionable offsets have been endorsed by companies that verified their validity has not helped. Detractors question the validity and quality of some carbon offset products, and whether or not they remove carbon in a permanent, additional, verifiable, enforceable and real manner. In ProPublica’s 2019 investigation, it was found that loggers in Brazil cut down trees once the offsets had been sold to U.S. and European corporations.(3) To date, offsetting by the voluntary carbon markets has been almost exclusively supplied by verified carbon credits issued by international projects. A fundamental concern of a project-based carbon credit is that the quantity of emissions reduction and/or carbon removal is unprovable – the reduction or removal is relative to an unobservable baseline.

(1) https://www.bloomberg.com/features/2020-nature-conservancy-carbon-offsets-trees/

(2) https://qz.com/2009746/not-all-carbon-offsets-are-a-scam-but-many-still-are/

(3) https://features.propublica.org/brazil-carbon-offsets/inconvenient-truth-carbon-credits-dont-work-deforestation-redd-acre-cambodia/





What will change when I purchase A2E CROs?


Regulated U.S. power plants have a license to emit carbon. In certain jurisdictions, they must pay for this right at auction. This cost to aquire pollution rights impacts the marginal cost of electricity generation and makes inefficient fossil generation less competive. Forcing power plants to acquire pollution rights at market prices changes the "economic dispatch" order. When we remove pollution rights that would otherwise be consumed by the U.S. power sector, we create additional scarcity in these markets which increases the marginal cost of inefficient fossil generation in the wholesale power market. By channeling voluntary demand and removing these pollution rights, we compel power generators to reduce emissions beyond stated goals or pay up to pollute, accelerating the U.S. power sector’s transition to clean energy. In addition, proceeds from the sale of these rights are plowed back into the local economy by state governments. They are used to fund energy efficiency, renewable energy, greenhouse gas abatement and other consumer benefit programs. Channeling voluntary demand into these auctions increases the proceeds available for reinvestment.





How are A2E CROs better?


A2E CROs or Air to Earth Carbon Removal Offsets can be accurately measured and verified - we issue, register and retire them for the voluntary carbon markets. There is no unobservable baseline that enters into the equation. We do not transact in carbon credits issued by international projects.

  • We deliver systemic change in the U.S.
  • We leverage successful U.S. regulatory frameworks that are proven and demonstrated to reduce emissions.
  • We remove carbon pollution rights that would otherwise be consumed by the U.S. power sector, reducing emissions beyond stated goals.
  • We register your voluntary investment in A2E’s CRO Registry and properly credit you for decarbonizing the U.S. power sector.
For each A2E CRO retired, we provide funding to innovate Direct Air Capture technology and advocate for carbon removal under The Air to Earth Standard. We do all of this for the voluntary carbon markets at a price comparable to that of a traditional carbon offset.




What are A2E CROs?


A2E CROs are an abbreviation for Air to Earth Carbon Removal Offsets. Each A2E CRO represents 1 metric ton of CO2 removal. A2E CROs are issued under the Air to Earth Standard.




What is the Air to Earth Standard?


The Air to Earth Standard test can be applied to any voluntary greenhouse gas emissions reduction or offset product that is available in the marketplace and available for use by any discerning individual, corporation, institution or governmental agency as a means for achieving net-zero greenhouse gas emissions. The Air to Earth Standard involves customary principals and requirements related to transparency, environmental integrity of emission reductions, including satisfaction of all “permanent, additional, verifiable, enforceable and real” tests, validity and verification of emissions reductions and tracking system disclosure to avoid double sales and double issuance. In addition, the Air to Earth Standard employs the following principal... only measurable carbon offsets that actually benefit the planet should ever be used to achieve net-zero goals. All A2E CROs are issued under the Air to Earth Standard.





 
Grass